## What hypothesis set can we use? ## A Simple Hypothesis Set: the “Perceptron”

• Perceptron in $\mathbb{R}^2$ • features x: points on the plane (or points in $\mathbb{R}^d$ )
• labels y: (+1), × (-1)
• hypothesis h: lines (or hyperplanes in $\mathbb{R}^d$ ),positive on one side of a line, negative on the other side
• different line classifies simples differently
perceptrons <=> linear (binary) classifiers

## Select g from $\mathscr{H}$

• want: $g \approx f$ (hard when f unknown)
• almost necessary: $g \approx f$ on D, ideally $g(x_n) = f(x_n) = y_n$
• difficult: H is of infinite size
• idea: start from some $g_0$, and correct its mistakes on $D$

## Perceptron Learning Algorithm   • if PLA halts (i.e. no more mistakes),
(necessary condition) $D$ allows some w to make no mistake
• call such $D$ linear separable
• • as long as linear separable and correct by mistake
• inner product of $w_f$ and $w_t$ grows fast; length of wt grows slowly
• PLA ‘lines’ are more and more aligned with $w_f \rightarrow halts$

## Line with Noise Tolerance

$D$ is not linear separable? ## Pocket Algorithm

Find the best weights in pocket until enough iterations ### Question

Since we do not know whether D is linear separable in advance, we may decide to just go with pocket instead of PLA. If D is actually linear separable, what’s the difference between the two?
1 pocket on D is slower than PLA
2 pocket on D is faster than PLA
3 pocket on D returns a better g in approximating f than PLA
4 pocket on D returns a worse g in approximating f than PLA

answer: Because pocket need to check whether $w_{t+1}$ is better than $\hat{w}$ in each iteration, it is slower than PLA. On linear separable D, $w_{POCKET}$ is the same as $w_{PLA}$, both making no mistakes.

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